Great Britain

History of London
The exact time of occurrence of the first settlements on the territory of modern London is unknown. It is not clear the origin of its name (attempts to link the word “London” with Celtic roots sufficiently substantiated). Reliable history of the city begins from 43 years after the invasion of Britain the legions of Roman Emperor Claudius. Where the closest to the sea Roman engineers Uday build a wooden bridge over the River Thames, the city was founded. The Romans built Londinium in the image of their city, erecting a wall around Pego, earthen first, and then, in the 4th century, stone, held almost on the border of this area of ??the City. For the history of London’s Roman period it was of great importance. Even then, a combination of good land roads and major water artery – Thames – made the city an important trading center, not only in Britain but the whole of northern Europe, will largely determine its further development. The first buildings arose on the hill Corn Hill, the city spread below nilsya and lying to the west of the hill of Saint Paul Hill. Londinium quickly became the largest center in Britain, and in ’51 historian Tacitus mentions it as ” a city filled with merchants, a well-known center of trade. “Districts near the center were jam-m brick and stone houses eogatyh citizens. They settled mountaineers to the streets, forming a rectangular grid. The houses here were very comfortable: in the excavation of Detect-Kena not only fragments of frescoes and mosaics, and the remains of bathrooms and air devices otopleniya.Vnachale city was protected by a small fort, located north-zzpadpee settlement. Syaedy its rectangular plan common to the Roman military camp, keep the direction of modern streets south Grippls Gate. As soon as the Roman Empire fell into decay and its legions were becoming weaker Londe-nium is becoming more powerful fortifications. In the 2nd century began which lasted several decades, construction of a wall around the city. Built of limestone and Kent which had a thickness of about 3 meters Well, it renews the centuries, and complemented, but retains its general shape and meaning of an essential element of the structure of Old town 4th century Londinium became increasingly subjected to raids of the barbarians of Northern Europe . Trade declined, the population decreased. Finally, in 410, Emperor Honorius withdrew the Roman legions from Britain and for many decades Londinium was abandoned. And yet, a fortified castle tower, taking the position dominant over London. Based on this stronghold, he controlled the city and its surroundings. At this time in England, completed the formation of feudal relations, the scattered field were united in a single state, which accelerated its economic razvitie.V the 12th century among the settlements coexist with London, stands the town of Westminster, had grown around the base vannogo in the 7th century monastery. On the south bank of the Thames, before Londonskimmostom in the years 1176-1209 rebuilt in stone, began to develop a fortified suburb of Southwark, defended the approach to the bridge and ferry. By this time the Londoners have self-government, elected judge and sheri- F. By the 14th century, the citizens, and especially folding merchant elite, have become a significant social force with which, willy-nilly had to be considered and the Royal London Wall vlasti.Gorodskaya never tolerated. When the city became too crowded, at some distance from it there were new settlements. The cause of severely restricting City area were exclusive rights, which has made the city. Urban elite did not want to share them with the new citizens, and the king sought to prevent the expansion of the privileged of the city. But in the Middle Ages, the history of London ceases to be history alone Siti.Funktsii governance focused at Westminster, which housed the Supreme Court, Parliament, the royal treasury. The Tudors in the 16th century moved his residence here, turning into a political prison Tower. Buildings grouped around Westminster Palace and abbatstva.Burnoe industrial development in the 16th century caused extensive con- struction so that the scope of his seemed menacing: the city’s population reached 123 thousand people, the number at the time unprecedented. In 1580 published the first law regulating the development of the city and the construction of the law in 1592 in London was prohibited. By the end of the 16th century, new industrial areas have developed into a complex of the East End, where they founded the first docks and settlement hereditary nobility, gruppirovav- shiesya around the royal palace at Whitehall, gave rise to the West End. By the mid-16th century the city’s population reached 400 thousand people, and the population of London overtook Paris, while the largest city in the world. But most of the wooden buildings of London remained. Houses in four or five floors with steep roofs formed a continuous development of narrow streets. Even parties but rose five-story London Bridge construction. Overcrowding and poor neighborhoods in the mud created the conditions for the plague, claimed tens of thousands of lives.
A radical change in appearance of the Great Fire of London served as 1666. The fire raged for three days, destroyed 13 200 homes and 87 churches. City were devastated, Holborn and Temple, collapsed in the fire not only wooden construction-and the monumental stone buildings; about 200 thousand people homeless. He was killed, and the Gothic Cathedral of St. Paul. The city had to be rebuilt.
Among the projects restoring the city’s most interesting was created by Christopher Wren (1632-1723 gg.), A major architect and scientist. His plan was based on the best examples of urban planning of the Baroque in Italy and France. Rays of long straight streets focused on large areas, are short-term large public buildings. The adopted law established after the fire that the building must be carried out in future only of stone and brick, “… not only for the greater pleasures species, but also for the greater security against possible future fires.” The law set a standard height of buildings: two storeys for the lanes, three – and four minor AJ – to the main streets. By 1801 the population of London reached nearly a million people. In the inter- nal parts of the city dwellings dwindled. Dear busi- sections O and shopping areas unprofitable be used for housing, its place was occupied by shops, administrative and commercial institutions. Gradually, large areas of the West End were turned into strictly business or trade. The same process took place in the City, which has become the financial center of the British Empire. It is significant that in 1801 in the City, Westminster and Best End lived almost half of the entire population of London. By 1841, when the total population approached 2 million, the proportion of these areas will not exceed 25 percent.
For the development of a complex system of polycentric city is extremely important transport. Of fundamental importance was the construction of railways, and in 1844 opened the passenger traffic between London and major cities in England. It was established and a network of suburban roads, and since 1863 within the city at a shallow depth, or in open trenches are beginning to be laid first metro line, until 1912 along the lines of the subway cruised locomotives.
Increased movement speed possible to extend the functions of the capital in the vast space. The new speed is born and a new scale of urban development. Outside the ring of suburbs appeared vye new industry and working-class districts around them. The process of the chaotic urban sprawl has accelerated sharply.
In London flocked mass goods from the colonies, it became not only the capital, but also as a link in trade between the mother country and the colonies. In the 19th century London became the financial center of the world. World War II caused considerable destruction city. Affected areas of the City, were destroyed and damaged buildings in Westminster, particularly ordeals befallen working East End.
In the aftermath of the war as a result of a long search was sostav- county development plan for Greater London, which provided for the termination of further territorial growth of the main body of the city, securing its borders “green belt”, where construction is prohibited. In London it was supposed to achieve a clear division of the territory, based on the historical centers of its parts.
In 1951, based on the plan-Aber Crombie was created and approved final version of the reconstruction of London. This plan, whose implementation was planned in twenty years, will identify ways esyai not eliminate, mitigate the main difficulties the mega-city. The current London – a cosmopolitan, lively, dynamically developing schiysya metropolis. It can rightly be called one of the capitals of the world by the influence that it has on the political, financial and cultural life of society, inhabiting planet Earth.

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