Grapefruit – a subtropical citrus tree grown for its fruit which was originally named the “forbidden fruit” of Barbados.
     These evergreen trees are usually in the range of 5-6 m tall, although they can reach and 13-15 m. The leaves are dark green, long (up to 150 mm) and thin. Grapefruit produces white flowers chetyrehlepestkovye (5 cm). Grapefruit fruits are yellow, substantially flattened and reach a diameter of 10-15 cm. The pulp is acidic yellow segmented. Numerous cultivars include white grapefruit and red grapefruit, which since 1929 US Ruby Red (kind Redblush) has a patent. Fruits became popular only in the late 19th century; Before that they were grown as an ornamental plant. US quickly became a major producer of fruit gardens in Florida, Texas, Arizona and California. In Spanish, the fruit known as «toronja» or «pomelo».
     Grapefruit was known as the shaddock or Shaddock until 1800. Its current name refers to the group of fruits on the tree, which often appear similar to grapes. Botanically, the fruit does not differ from the pomelo until 1830, when it was given the name Citrus paradizi. Its true origin was not identified until 1940. This led to the fact that its official name was changed to Citrus paradise.
     Grapefruit peel oil is used in aromatherapy and it is historically known for its aroma.
     The colors and flavors
     Grapefruit has many varieties, determines the color, which is caused by the pigmentation of the fruit and the state of maturity, as well as on genetic predisposition. The most popular species are grown today – it’s red, white and pink shades of the interior of the fruit pulp. Taste a variety of ranges from very acidic and somewhat bitter to sweet and pungent. The sulfur-containing terpene, is a substance which has a strong influence on the taste and aroma of the grapefruit, compared with other citrus fruit.
     Medicinal uses
     Grapefruit can have many uses in medicines often improve the efficiency of potential formulations. Grapefruit contains naringin, and bergamottin digidroksibergamottin that inhibits cytochrome P450 isoforms CYP3A4 in the intestines. It is because of suppression of this enzyme grapefruit enhances the effects of buspirone (Buspar), carbamazepine, certain statin-drugs (such as simvastatin), terfenandina, felodipine, nifedipine, verapamil, estradiol, tacrolimus, dekstrometorpana (effective only in recreational doses), benzodiazepines and cyclosporine . The effect of grapefruit juice with respect to absorption of the drug was originally discovered in 1989. However, this effect has become well known and being responsible for a lot of deaths due to overdose of the treatment.
     Nutritional properties
     Grapefruit – an excellent source of many nutrients and phytochemicals for a healthy diet. Grapefruit – a good source of vitamin C, pectin fiber, and the pink and red grapefruit contain lycopene, a good antioxidant. Studies have shown that grapefruit helps lower cholesterol and there is evidence that its seeds have low levels of antioxidant properties. Grapefruit is a major part of the “grapefruit diet”, the theory proves that a low glycemic index of these fruits are able to increase the body’s metabolism and burn fat.

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