Banana – is a common name used for herbaceous plants of the genus Musa, and the name given to the fruit of these plants. They originated from the tropical region of Southeast Asia, the Malay Archipelago, and Australia. Today, they are grown throughout the tropics.
     Banana plants are part of the family Musaceae. They are cultivated primarily for their fruit, and to a lesser extent for the production of fibers and as ornamentals. Because of their size and structure of the banana plants are often mistaken for trees. Chief or vertical outgrowth called pseudostem, which for some species can reach a height of 2-8 m., With leaves up to 3.5 m. Long. Each pseudostem produces a single bunch of bananas before wilting and replaced by a new pseudostem.
     Banana fruits are formed in hanging groups, with 20 fruits in a row (called a hand), and 3-20 rows in the bundle. The total number of groups called the hanging bunch, or commercially – “banana stem”, which can weigh 30 to 50 kg. Fruits averages 125 g each, of which about 75% is water and 25% dry content of the product. Each individual fruit (known as a banana) has a protective outer layer (peel or skin) with a fleshy edible inner portion. Typically fruits have numerous fibers (called “phloem bundles’) which run between the skin and the edible part of the banana, and which are usually removed directly after the skin is removed. Bananas – a valuable source of vitamin A, vitamin B6, vitamin C and potassium.
     Bananas are grown in 132 countries around the world, more than any other fruit harvest. In popular culture and commerce under the “banana” usually mean the soft, sweet dessert banana, which is usually eaten raw. Bananas from the group of cultivars with firmer, more starchy fruits are commonly used in cooking rather than eaten raw. Bananas may also be dried and milled on banana flour. Although the wild species have fruits with numerous large hard seeds, virtually all culinary bananas have seedless fruits. Bananas are classified either as dessert bananas (meaning they are yellow and fully ready to eat), or green bananas for cooking. Almost all export bananas are of the dessert type. However, only about 10-15% of the total production is exported to the US and the EU is the dominant buyers.
     Bananas come in a variety of sizes and colors. Most cultivars are yellow when ripe, but some are red or purple. Mature fruits are easy to clean and eaten raw or prepared. Depending on the cultivar and maturity of the flesh can be starchy or sweet, hard or soft. Immature or “green” bananas and bananas are used in cooking, it is a major source of starch for many tropical communities.
     Most production for local sale have green cooking bananas, because bananas are ripe dessert can easily be damaged during transport to market. Even when transportation is carried out within the country of origin, ripe bananas suffer a high rate of damage and loss.

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